It suggests that the alleged positive impact of democracy on corruption control is not so much due to the compliance with the existence, de jure, of some democratic institutions on paper, but hinges upon the effective implementation of these democratic institutions.
In their regressions, both Sung and Rock find that such a quadratic inverted U-shaped function improves the predictive quality of the model. In the first half of the 20th century nascent democracies collapsed in Germany, Spain and Italy. The existence of these sanctions should influence the behaviour of politicians, and in the end the political competition for votes should lead to honest politics.
In Asia, Bangladesh is one of the most corrupt nations.
In most cases they elect the principal governing officials and hold them accountable for their actions. Interestingly, they only include stable autocracies and unstable democracies in their sample; as they argue, the other cases are quite unambiguous.
The United States has become a byword for gridlock, so obsessed with partisan point-scoring that it has come to the verge of defaulting on its debts twice in the past two years.