Guns germs and steel chapter thesis

North African "whites" resemble whites in the Middle East and Europe and mostly speak Afro-Asiatic languages, of which the Semitic languages are an offshoot.

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Diamond rephrases this question: why did white Eurasians dominate over other cultures by means of superior guns, population-destroying germs, steel, and food-producing capability?

He then turns the point around and asks why, for instance, the Native Americans or Aboriginal Australians were not the ones who possessed these proximate factors and used them to conquer Europe.

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Often, languages spread through blueprint diffusion. His indigenous New Guinean politician friend Yali asked why whites had been so successful and arrived with so much "cargo" compared to the locals. The chapters build on one another. As will be shown under bullet 3, only a fraction of edible wild plants are adequate for domestication. Eurasia had many more animal candidates for domestication than the New World, giving its inhabitants a competitive advantage. The transformation to exclusively human diseases involves changes in the intermediate vector e. Furthermore, there were periods when humans used aspects of both hunter-gatherer and agricultural society. Khoisan, Pacific Islanders, and Aboriginal Australians were also decimated by imported diseases. Since the share of edible plants and animals in the wild is usually rather low, this way of alimentation implies that all able members of a group of hunter-gatherers had to engage in hunting and gathering, so none of them had the time to think of inventing anything leading to the proximate factors alluded to in the introduction. Australians did not absorb complex technologies from New Guinea as they might have. By that time, humans had moved from their origin in Africa to all continents. Humans slowly developed agriculture through a process of trial and error. Furthermore, he pinpoints that most human epidemic diseases evolved from similar epidemic diseases of domesticated animals with which humans came into close contact. The Cherokee Indian Sequoyah developed a writing system for writing Cherokee using 85 symbols, including some from our own alphabet though not according to our usage.

Other examples of cultures rejecting new innovations include the Tasmanians fishingChina ocean going shipsand Polynesians pottery in some areas.

Other cultures adopted writing by blueprint copying or less directly by idea diffusion. The Etruscans modified the Greek alphabet and later the Romans, leading to the Latin alphabet we now use.

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Copy to Clipboard. Chiefdoms have thousands of people, have 1 or more villages possibly with a paramount village, have class and residence relationships, still 1 ethnicity, have centralized often hereditary rule, include monopoly and centralized conflict resolution, justify kleptocracy and a redistributive economy requiring tributehave intensive food production, early division of labor, luxury goods, etc

Guns germs and steel chapter 15 summary

Amazonia, by BC: potato, manioc, quinoa, lima, bean, peanut, cotton, sweet potato, oca, squashes, [corn], llama, guinea pig Eastern US, BC: sunflower, goosefoot chenopod , Jerusalem artichoke, squash; no animals, pulses, nuts, or fruits? The main factors leading to the difference in technological development between the conquering Europeans and the New World inhabitants were: level of food production, barriers to diffusion, and differences in human population. With the food surpluses permitting the development of large, dense, sedentary, stratified and politically centralized societies, governing elites were able to organize and support for instance the conquest of other continents. Penetration of Europeans in New Guinea was slow due to malaria, etc. Seed crops are easy to grow and store, and their domestication came first. He cites certain natural historical experiments that have occurred. He reasons that animal domestication requires that a wild animal fulfils many prerequisites. Most new developments arrive by diffusion, which for places with geographic or ecologic barriers is limited. Chapter 2: A Natural Experiment of History The Maoris overran the Morioris in the Chatham islands in , though both were of Polynesian extraction, due to greater warlike capability of the Maoris, etc. Diamond enumerates for instance that the animal has to feed on a diet that humans can supply, the willingness to breed in captivity and the lack of a tendency to panic when fenced in, as well as a social structure involving submissive behaviour towards dominant animals and humans. Modern stone age peoples "are on the average probably more intelligent, not less intelligent, than industrialized peoples. This explains why hunter-gatherers were typically organized in small bands and tribes. Animals also provide hides for warmth, transport capability, and animal-derived germs smallpox, measles, flu, etc. The history of human societies, while difficult to understand, should be no harder to study than the dinosaurs.
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Essay about Guns, Germs, and Steel Chapter by Chapter Summary