It will be weaker if relevant conditions about the past time will be different next time, such as that in the past the dog has been behind a closed gate, but next time the gate will be open. A proof changes our knowledge; an argument compels us to act.
If Socrates is a man and all men are mortal, then Socrates must be mortal as well. This lesson, however, stops short of providing tools for evaluating philosophical arguments.
If the conclusion, itself, just so happens to be a necessary truth, it is so without regard to the premises. He or she may merely believe that nearly all champagne is made in France, and may be reasoning probabilistically. Informal arguments are sometimes implicit. This is the cause of much difficulty in thinking critically about claims.
An argument is not an explanation. Invalid argument. A form of argument is valid if and only if the conclusion is true under all interpretations of that argument in which the premises are true.
Indeed, the same utterance may be used to present either a deductive or an inductive argument, depending on what the person advancing it believes.
In this example there are two premises and the turnstile is so. The form of argument can be shown by the use of symbols.
Computer and projector or equipment to watch short video clips from the web Introduction This lesson can be used at any time in a philosophy course, for a meeting of a philosophy club or discussion group, or for a workshop, but, because it introduces students or participants to the method of how philosophers approach philosophical questions, it is especially appropriate as a first lesson or experience.